18 December 2009

Ethical Hacking !!! OWASP TOP 10 | SANS TOP 20

One of the questions which comes to my mind when ever i visit any website is "Are We Secure?"

We meet people day in day out who still run there business in traditional way failing to realize the importance of security, security is just a cost burden which is not a revenue generator for them. Be it a developer, manager, a corporate head what it matters to them is money and the end result i.e. software, a website.

When we see attacks happening around us on TV all we have to say is that administration is not effectively protecting us, failing to realize that we ourselves have neglected the same while we were carrying out our jobs.

As a responsible citizen i take this forum to introduce all to the mindset of an hacker further we also go on to talk about the Web attacks happening around us.For all developers developing solutions it becomes really important to know what is the vision of an hacker and keep it in mind while designing there solutions.

Stage 1 :-Information Gathering

What does a robber looks for when he choices for a home to rob?
He looks to gather information about the home, people, what valuables will he get ?
Similar to robber an hacker always thinks the same way he try's to gather information about the website or software from the various available online forums to know more about the solution and the weak areas.

Stage 2:- Scanning

What does robber looks for once he has choice his target?
Robers always try to rob a house which are easy to break in he always asks this How easy is it for him to break in?. Similarly hackers targets the system which are weak he try to scan the networks and website to know the known open ports and access.

Stage 3:- Discovery

What does robber need once he knows the entry points?
He will try to identify the tools which will help him in executing his job, similarly hacker always try to look for available exploits or customize exploits from available online forums such as milw0rm, osvdb etc.

Stage 4:- Exploit

Now the robber/hacker is ready to rob your home!!! He will try to exploit the vulnerabilities/weakness in your home or software to gain access into it.

Stage 5:- Covering Tracks

Once he has done the theft he will always try to do it in such a manner that there is no evidence to prove his doings. Similar an hacker will try to perform similar act by trying to removing all his occurrence of attacks.

What can we do to ?

Well be aware of what is happening across the online forums, there are forums which provide information about exploits for various software weakness. Also we much try to incorporate best practices such as OWASP Top 10, SANS etc.

Some of the security layers which we must have are
1. Application Layer Defense.
2. Session Layer Defense.
3. Network Layer Defense.

The attackers are now moving from traditional network layers attacks to application layer. Following are some of the top defects which are easy to find and exploited by attackers.

1. Input Validation.
Possible Attacks :-SQL Injection,Cross Site Scripting, Cross Site Request Forgery, HTTP Response Splitting.

Cause & Impact:-

SQL injection:- The website does not validate the input parameters i.e. all the request parameters sent by an enduser.An attacker can exploit this vulnerability to query the database and can lead to creating a replica of the database. If the application contains customer sensitive information then an attacker can use this information for spamming or could sell the information to competitor firm.

Cross Site Scripting:- The website does not validate the input/output parameters i.e. all the request parameters sent by/ an enduser. An attacker can use this to redirect the response of the user to his choice of servers whereby leading to transfer of sensitive information such as user credentials, account information. This attack could can be used to defame a website whereby impacting the brand image of the company.

Cross Site Request Forgery:-The website does not assign a dynamic IDs to the post request parameters i.e. all the request parameters sent by enduser are static page Ids.This attack can be used general data manipulation in the name of others.

HTTP Response Splitting:-The website does not validate the user input and response from the server contains invalidated user input. This attack could lead to redirecting user response to the server of attackers choice .

2. Authorization Bypass
Possible Attacks:- Horizontal Authorization Bypass, Vertical Authorization Bypass using URL/Parameter Manipulation and Packet replay.

Cause & Impact:-
URL/Parameter Manipluation:- The website does not validate the authorization privilege of a user before serving any content. An attacker could use this to gain acccess to administrator roles and privalges.

Packet Replay:- The website does not map the session ID of an user with the user uniquely defined parameters. An attacker could use this to gain acccess to administrator roles and privalges by replying the packet in case the website is over insecure channel i.e. HTTP.

There are couple of other important issues which will be covered in the upcoming post such as Session layer attacks, Configuration Management issues, Log Management issues, In- Secure Channels and Network layer attacks.

Hope this post would be informative to you and would like to hear your comments on the above highlighted problems.

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Security Practices Asp.Net

First thing which comes to mind when one connects to internet is am i secure.....?... Is somebody watching me? .Nobody has an answser to it but all one can do is use best practices to be on a safe edge of the wall. Listed below are some of the security misconfigurations, and demonstrates their potential impact on your applications.

1. Web.Config

Web.config files operate in a hierarchical inheritance manner. All Web.config files on the system inherit from the global configuration file called Machine.config located in the .NET framework directory. The effect of this is that the runtime behavior of your application can be altered simply by modifying a configuration file in a higher directory .

To keep your application-specific settings from being unexpectedly modified, the solution is to never rely on default setting values. For example, debugging is disabled by default in configuration files. If you're examining the configuration file for your application and you notice that the debug attribute is blank, you might assume that debugging is disabled. But it may or may not be disabled—the applied value depends on the value in parent configuration settings on the system. The safest choice is to always explicitly set security-related values in your application's configuration.

1.1 Custom Errors Disabled

When you disable custom errors as shown below, ASP.NET provides a detailed error message to clients by default.

Looking at the error page, an attacker can see that the application is using the .NET framework version and ASP.NET version Knowing that, he can search the Web for known security advisories concerning these specific product versions. The hacker can also determine that the application is using Microsoft SQL Server as its database, because the exception type thrown was a SqlException, which is specific to Microsoft SQL Server. The more information a hacker can gather about a Web site, the more likely it is that he will be able to successfully attack it.

You can prevent such information leakage by modifying the mode attribute of the element to On or RemoteOnly. This setting instructs the Web application to display a nondescript, generic error message when an unhandled exception is generated.

Another way to circumvent the problem is to create your own custom error page and redirect users to that page when errors occur.

1.2 Leaving Tracing Enabled

The trace feature of ASP.NET is one of the most useful tools that you can use to debug and profile your applications. When the element is enabled for remote users (localOnly="false"), any user can view an incredibly detailed list of recent requests to the application simply by browsing to the page trace.axd .

An hacker would find the form variables, request and response and various other useful information; these might include email addresses that could be harvested and sold to spammers, IDs and passwords that could be used to impersonate the user, or credit card and bank account numbers. Even the most innocent-looking piece of data in the trace collection can be dangerous in the wrong hands. For example, the APPL_PHYSICAL_PATH server variable, which contains the physical path of the application on the server, could help an attacker perform directory traversal attacks against the system .

The best way to prevent a hacker from obtaining trace data is to disable the trace viewer completely by setting the enabled attribute of the element to false. If you must have the trace viewer enabled, either to debug or to profile your application, then be sure to set the localOnly attribute of the element to true. This setting allows users to access the trace viewer only from the Web server and disables viewing it from any remote machine.

1.3 Leaving Debugging Enabled

Deploying a Web application in debug mode is a very common mistake. If you have enabled debugging and disabled custom errors in your application, then any error message displayed to an end user will include not only the server information, a detailed exception message, and a stack trace, but also the actual source code of the page where the error occurred .

To disable debugging, set the value of the debug attribute of the element to false. This is the default value of the setting, but as we will see, it's safer to explicitly set the desired value rather than relying on the defaults.

1.4 Cookies Accessible Through Client-Side Script

In Internet Explorer 6.0, Microsoft introduced a new cookie property called HttpOnly. While you can set the property programmatically, you can set it generically in the site configuration.

Message board or forum pages are also often vulnerable to cross site scripting. An attacker, rather than posting about the current topic, will instead post a message such as script code in its page code—and the browser then interprets and executes it for future site visitors. Usually attackers use such script code to try to obtain the user's authentication token (usually stored in a cookie), which they could then use to impersonate the user.

When cookies are marked with the HttpOnly property, their values are hidden from the client, so this attack will fail .

1.5 Cookieless SessionState Enabled

In the initial 1.0 release of ASP.NET, you had no choice about how to transmit the session token between requests when your Web application needed to maintain session state: it was always stored in a cookie. Unfortunately, this meant that users who would not accept cookies could not use your application. So, in ASP.NET 1.1, Microsoft added support for cookieless session tokens via use of the "cookieless" setting.

Web applications configured to use cookieless session state now stored the session token in the page URLs rather than a cookie. For example, the page URL might change from http://mysite/default.aspx to http://mysite/(123456789ABCDEFG)/default.aspx. In this case, 123456789ABCDEFG represents the current user's session token it had the side effect of making those applications much more vulnerable to identity theft whereby using a network monitoring tool (also known as a "sniffer") or by obtaining a recent request log, hijacking the user's session becomes a simple matter of browsing to the URL containing the stolen unique session token and hence impersonates a legitimate user by stealing his session token.

The most effective way to prevent these session hijacking attacks is to force your Web application to use cookies to store the session token. This is accomplished by setting the cookieless attribute of the element to UseCookies or false. But what about the users who do not accept cookies? By setting the cookieless attribute to AutoDetect, the application will store the session token in a cookie for users who accept them and in the URL for those who won't. This means that only the users who use cookieless tokens will still be vulnerable to session hijacking.

1.6 Cookieless Authentication Enabled

Just as in the "Cookieless Session State Enabled" vulnerability discussed above, enabling cookieless authentication in your application can lead to session hijacking.

Session hijacking has far more serious consequences after a user has been authenticated. For example, online shopping sites generally allow users to browse without having to provide an ID and password. But when users are ready to make purchases, or when they want to view their orders, they have to login and be authenticated by the system. After logging in, sites provide access to more sensitive data, such as a user's order history, billing address, and credit card number. Attackers hijacking a user's session before authentication can't usually obtain much useful information. But if the attacker hijacks the session after authentication, all that sensitive information could be compromised.

The best way to prevent session hijacking is to disable cookieless authentication and force the use of cookies for storing authentication tokens. This is done by changing the cookieless attribute of the element to the value UseCookies.

1.7 Failure to Require SSL for Authentication Cookies

Web applications use the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol to encrypt data passed between the Web server and the client. Using SSL means that attackers using network sniffers will not be able to interpret the exchanged data. Rather than seeing plaintext requests and responses, they will see only an indecipherable jumble of meaningless characters.

Disabling cookieless authentication is just the first step towards securing the authentication token. Unless requests made to the Web server are encrypted, a network sniffer will still be able to read the authentication token from the request cookie. An attacker would still be able to hijack the user's session.

By setting the requireSSL attribute of the element to true, the ASP.NET application will use a secure connection when transmitting the authentication cookie to the Web server.

1.8 Sliding Expiration Used

All authenticated ASP.NET sessions have a timeout interval. The default timeout value is 30 minutes. After 30 minutes of inactivity, the user will automatically be timed out and forced to re-authenticate his credentials

The slidingExpiration setting is a security measure used to reduce risk in case the authentication token is stolen. When set to false, the specified timeout interval becomes a fixed period of time from the initial login, rather than a period of inactivity. Attackers using a stolen authentication token have, at maximum, only the specified length of time to impersonate the user before the session times out. Because typical attackers have only the token, and don't really know the user's credentials, they can't log back in as the legitimate user, so the stolen authentication token is now useless and the threat is mitigated. .

To avoid this altogether, you can disable sliding expiration by setting the slidingExpiration attribute of the element to false.

1.9 Non-Unique Authentication Cookie Used

As strange as it seems, an improperly chosen cookie name can create a security vulnerability just as dangerous as an improperly chosen storage location.

The default value for the name of the authentication cookie is .ASPXAUTH. If you have only one Web application on your server, then .ASPXAUTH is a perfectly secure choice for the cookie name. In fact, any choice would be secure. But, when your server runs more than one ASP.NET application, it becomes critical to assign a unique authentication cookie name to each application. If the names are not unique, then users logging into any of the applications might inadvertently gain access to all of them.

The best way to ensure that each Web application on your server has its own set of authorized users is to change the authentication cookie name to a unique value.

1.10 Hardcoded Credentials Used

A fundamental difficulty of creating software is that the environment in which the application will be deployed is usually not the same environment in which it is created. In a production environment, the operating system may be different, the hardware on which the application runs may be more or less powerful, and test databases are replaced with live databases. This is an issue for creating applications that require authentication because developers and administrators often use test credentials to test the system. The question is: Where do the test credentials come from

For convenience, to avoid forcing developers from spending time on creating a credential store used solely for test purposes (and which would subsequently be discarded when the application went to production), Microsoft added a section to the Web.config file that you can use to quickly add test users to the application. Storing login credentials in plaintext in a configuration file is simply not secure. Anyone with read access to the Web.config file could access the authenticated Web application. It is possible to store the SHA-1 or MD5 hash of the password value, rather than storing the password in plaintext.

The most secure way to store login credentials is to not store them in the configuration file. Remove the element from your Web.config files in production applications.

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20 February 2009

Blocking Skpye in a Network

One of the challenges which are faced by many administrator's is to block software's which create a Http tunnel. Skype is one of the software which works on similar principles. Lets first understand how it works.

How Skype Works?

When ever we install skype on any computer, it has a default list of server's to which it tries to connect, firstly it will try to connect using port 80 with P2P protocol. All the corporate houses have content and protocol filtering software's such as Websense, with which p2p protocols can be easyly be blocked, but skype is something which tries to sneek through these Content and policy based software's. If skype fails to connect through port 80 then it tries to connect using port 443 and creates a secured tunnel, once it creates a tunnel it tried to connect to supernode, which then inturn connect it to Skype login Server.

How to Block Skype?

If you try to trace the Ip's of the supernode and try to block them you will notice that it will still not block the skype, since the list of supernodes grows long.

One of the best ways to block Skype is to block the Ip based connectivity through your proxy. Here are some of the changes which can you would need to make in proxy server configuration file.

# Prevent Skype connecting HTTPs using CONNECT requests to IP addresses (those not using domain names)
acl numeric_IPs url_regex ^[0-9]+.[0-9]+.[0-9]+.[0-9]+
http_access deny CONNECT numeric_IPs all

# Prevent Skype connecting http
acl Skype_UA browser Skype
http_access deny Skype_UA

# Prevent anyone to download anything from skype website
acl Skype_domain dstdomain skype.com
http_access deny Skype_domain

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08 December 2008

Gameeeee.vbs Windows Script Host Error..........!

This is new variant of the old Chinese virus, If you see file name they using this team looks like gamers team in china. What they looking for? Spoofing your log! get your financial information, get your sensitive information, etc.

Symptoms that your computer is infected with it

->Gettings pops while browsing like windows script host error "gameeeee.vbs" "ags.vbs" and any other ends with vbs extension.
->Presence of "gameeeee.vbs" and "gameeeee.pif" in the "Temp" folder of your computer.
->Presence of "Thunder.cmd" in "Startup" folder of your computer.
->Presense of "ihhh.html" file in the "Temproray internet files"
->Internet browsing gets slow brower seems to hang, in status bar you see going to a particular website like "u.cruze3.cn"

If you observe any of the above mentioned symptoms then your computer seems to be infected with this virus. Actually its not a virus its a spyware which tries to steel information from your computer. This spyware has the capability to spreed itself over the network, if you see any computer infected with this then first step should be to remove this computer from the network else pretty soon all the system in the network will be infected with it.

Now let us start with troubleshooting.......

Step 1

Some of the files which are actually malicious files but would be showing as folders.

=> The folders that were found are as follows:

C:\WINDOWS\System32/{iifgfgf.dll ,vcmgcd32.dll and systems.txt}
C:\WINDOWS\{logo1_.exe, rundl132.dll, rundll16.exe and zts2.exe}

The above files are malicious but they were converted into folders. Deleted the above folders.

C:\WINDOWS\System32 \{spider.exe,winmine.exe and DSndUp.exe}
C:\WINDOWS\System32 or \drivers\{asyncmac.sys,beep.sys,aec.sys and
C:\WINDOWS\{Lic.xxx,R.COM and WMSysPr9.prx}

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs\Startup

Apart from the above mentioned files look for these files also which
were used by previous varient of the same spyware.

-HBBO.dll, HBCHIBI.dll, HBQQFFO.dll, HBmhly.dll, HBZHUXIAN.dll,
HBZG.dll,HBSO2.dll, HBQQSG.dll, HBSOUL.dll
-AcSpecf.sdb, AcXtrnel.sdb, AcSpecf.dll
-HBKernel32.sys, eth8023.sys

Delete the all mentioned files & also delete all the files from temp and temporary internet files folder.

You might not be able to delete some of the above file for that use Unlocker.

Step 2

After deleting the above mentioned files next step would be to block the url which you notice in the status bar of your screen. for example in the address bar i write google.com but notice u.cruze3.cn or i try to go to yahoo.com and notise the same url then block this url in the Proxy or in the firewall.

Step 3

Now run norman malware cleaner. This will remove all the infected files from your computer.

Step 4

Now we have to repair winsock for that go to registry.


Delete the above mentioned folders then restart your machine.

Now you are free from this spyware enjoy your browsing..............................

I will be looking forward towards your feedback about this post..............

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31 May 2008

Innovative Designs and Devices

We all moving towards a fairy tale world where everything looks to be beautiful and perfect from the smallest little non living thing to the more visible creatures. With technology around we are able to live a comfortable life, but is comfortable good enough for us?? don't we wish to live life where everything around us is just like we want it to be?? well i think time is changing technology is advancing we are now moving towards a new world where consumers are having a say in the design, looks and features of every thing being built around us.

Its now end of those fat looking , heavy systems which would only satisfy our technological needs but still lack looks. Now it time for some makeover of devices its been long that we have been seeing things as they are but now we need change we want to get rid of these fat looking heavy device. Here are some new looking devices of 21st century which will change the way how we perceive things.

How about the remote control in shape of Apple??

Well well it gone be one fine experience to play with. Sony is expected to give our old fashioned remote a new look it will look like an apple

How about a Digital Pot Lets Plants tell you their demands???

A new Digital pot is being developed which will automatically tell us about what are the needs of the plant..............

These happens to be only just a few examples of our new devices. If you wish to see more then

Here is the link : smashingmagazine

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